Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Maps are useful for more than just directions. They can also help you determine the distance between two (or more) places. The scales on a map can be of different types, ranging from words and ratios to pictorial scales. Decoding the scale is the key to determining your distance. Heres a quick guide on how to measure distances on a map. All youll need is a ruler, some scratch paper, and a pencil.Ã How-To Steps Use a ruler to measure the distance between the two places. If the line that youre trying to measure is quite curved, use a string to determine the distance, and then measure the string.Find the scale for the map youre going to use. They are typically located in one of the corners of the map. It might be pictorialÃ¢â¬âa ruler bar scale, or a written scaleÃ¢â¬âin words or numbers.If the scale is a verbal statement (i.e. 1 inch equals 1 mile), determine the distance by simply measuring it with a ruler.Ã For example, if the scale says 1 inch 1 mile, then for every inch between the two points on the map, the real distance on the ground is that number in miles. If your measurement on the map is 3 5/8 inches, that would be 3.63 miles on the ground.If the scale is a representative fraction (and looks like 1/100,000), multiply the distance of the ruler by the denominator (100,000 in this case), which denotes distance in the ruler units. The units will be listed on the map, such as 1 inch or 1 centimeter. For example, if the map fraction is 1/100,000, the scale says inches, and your points are 6 inches apart, in real life theyll be 6x100,000 so 600,000 centimeters or 6 kilometers apart.Ã If the scale is a ratio (and looks like 1:100,000), youll multiply the map units by the number following the colon. For example, if you see 1:63,360, that means 1 inch on the map represents 63,360 inches on the ground, which is 1 mile.With a graphic scale, youll need to measure the graphic, for example, white and black bars, to determine how much ruler distance equates to distance in reality. You can either take your ruler measurement of the distance between your two points and place that on the scale to determine real distance, or you can use scratch paper and go from the scale to the map.To use paper, youll place the edge of the sheet next to the scale and make marks where it shows distances, thus transferring the scale to the paper. Then label the marks as to what they mea n, in real distance. Finally, youll lay the paper on the map between your two points to determine the real-life distance between them.After youve found out your measurement and compared it with the scale, convert your units of measurement into the most convenient units for you (i.e., convert 63,360 inches to 1 mile or 600,000 cm toÃ 6 km, and so on). Look Out Watch out for maps that have been reproduced and have had their scale changed. A graphic scale will change with the reduction or enlargement, but other scales become wrong. For example, if a map was shrunk down to 75 percent on a copier to make a handout and the scale says that 1 inch on the map is 1 mile, its no longer true; only the original map printed at 100 percent is accurate for that scale.
Friday, May 15, 2020
CASE ANALYSIS FOLDRITE FURNITURE CO.: PLANNING TO MEET A SURGE IN DEMAND Submitted to: Submitted by: Dr. P. K. Dash Abhinav Anand Operations Management PGDM-BHU010 Case facts about FoldeRite Furniture:- * Established in 1987 * Throughout 1990s company grew organically. * 1999-2006 annual growth rate 3.5%. (More than market growth rate) but one competitor grew by 6% annually. * In 2006 companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance was very bad due to following concluded reasons- * Loss of productivity and yields caused by high labor turnover. * Cost of raw materials was increasing * Increasing proportionÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The first option available was to ask the staff to work an extra shift. 2. Increase the staff temporarily to take advantage of idle production capacity. 3. Changing the designs of the cloud chair slightly to require one minute less in assembly 4. To increase the amount of inventory using a constant level of production. 5. The last option available with Kelsey was subcontracting part of work, such as the manufacture of seats for stackable chairs. Q2. What are the financial implications of the three options? How does it impacts the lead time? Wages of the Skilled workers is = 19 + 33% of 19 = 25.27 Wages of the Unskilled workers is = 9 + 10% of 9=9.9 Change Strategy In alstrong, the hiring cost would be zero for skilled and $2593.5 for unskilled labors. The layoff cost would be $327288 for skilled $349752 for unskilled labours In case of cloud chairs, the hiring cost would be zero for skilled and $633.6 for unskilled labours. The layoff cost would be $264342 for skilled $533520 for unskilled labours In case of green comfort, the hiring cost would be zero for skilled and $1662.5 for unskilled labours. The layoff cost would be $214058 for skilled $231270 for unskilled labors Subcontracting Strategy In case of cloud chairs, units subcontracted cost would be $720355.32. In case of alstrong, units subcontracted cost would be $46959.28. In case of green comfort, units subcontracted cost would be zero. The lead time will reduceShow MoreRelatedThe Creation Of A Canadian Infrastructure Development Bank745 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesproduced by the economy while economic growth refers to rise in the market value of the commodities and services produced by the economy over time. Economic growth is usually measured as a percentage change in the real gross domestic product (GDP) (Jones 2014). This paper will explain how the creation of a Canadian Infrastructure Development Bank by the Canadian bank will lead to long run and short run economic growth. It is true that the call by the Morneau s economic growth council for the creationRead MoreThe Effects Of Post Olympic Games On The Olympics1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand consumers reduce in the Olympic host city and the economic markets shrink. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In the first two decades of the twentieth century the national political scene reflected a growing American belief in the ideas of the Progressive movement. This movement was concerned with fundamental social and economic reforms and gained in popularity under two presidents. Yet Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson espoused two different approaches to progressive reform. And each one was able to prevail upon congress to pass legislation in keeping with his own version of the progressive dream. These two people, although they had different principles in mind, had one goal: to make changes to the nation for the better of the people and the country. Setting out to reach this goal, Roosevelt came to be a president of the common man whileÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He placed millions of acres of land under federal protection, preserving Americas natural resources. He regulated interstate commerce and helped laborers to get a fair chance at the negotiating table. In his New Nationa lism platform, he called for womens suffrage, an end to child labor, pensions for the elderly, unemployment insurance, and increased regulation of the trusts. However, Wilson was less of a peoples man because he was a strong proponent of states rights and felt that such issues as womens suffrage and child labor laws were issues for the state. Wilson rejected a stronger role of government in human affairs. Wilsons approach to progressivism was aimed more at commerce rather than with the people. As soon as he became president, he set to tackle the triple wall of privilege: bank, tariff, and the trusts. He demanded that all trusts must be broken up in order for small businesses to succeed and competition to be restored. When it came to trusts, he showed no mercy, believing that entrepeurship and competition was the key to a healthy economy. Wilson pushed for creation of a Federal Trade Commission, a federal agency which would regulate trade on a continuous basis. He also secured passage of the Federal Reserve Act which created a federal agency to serve as economic watch dog and regulator of the banking industry. He also helped pass the Underwood Tariff Bill, whichShow MoreRelated Wilson vs. Roosevelt Essay724 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWilson vs. Roosevelt In the first two decades of the twentieth century the national political scene reflected a growing American belief in the ideas of the Progressive movement. This movement was concerned with fundamental social and economic reforms and gained in popularity under two presidents. Yet Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson espoused two different approaches to progressive reform. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Communication in Organizationfor Woolworths. Answer: Introduction Communication is defined as the process where the information flows between the source and the receiver and vice versa. Communication is an important aspect not only in a persons life but also it is important in terms of organizations. The essay will describe about the different communication theories along with the essential skills in the improvement of the interpersonal communication, organizational communication and intercultural communication. It can be said that there are various forms of communication. They are vocal, non-vocal, verbal and non-verbal. Along with the skills of communication, listening skills are also important for becoming an ideal communicator. Importance of Communication withinOrganization The organization chosen for describing the importance of communication is Woolworths. The employees of the company are not communicating with each other at different levels. The interactions of the employees are not at all satisfactory in order to provide excellent customer service to the customers of the country. The company personnel are not at all responsive to the customers by resolving them to different branches of the company (Sanghi 2016). The interaction of the customers and the company personnel portrays the fact that the employees are lack of motivation while not showing any response towards it. The importance of communication among the employees in Woolworths is responsible for promoting motivation, source of information, helps in socializing, controlling process, maintaining strong relationships, strong teamwork, ideas and innovations, etc. Customer ambassadors in the company are a vital aspect of Woolworths that are maintained by the employees of the company through prop er channels of communication. Communications of the employees are not at all satisfactory among the different management levels. Solutions are to be provided while improving their levels of communication (Griffin 2013). Communication Theories and Concepts Research has pointed out the fact that there are many theoretical models of communication that are performed by different individuals both in their personal spheres of life and in organizational perspectives. The theory of Transmission model is described in this section. The model illustrates the process of transfer of communication such as information source, transmitter, channel, receiver and finally to the destination. This model id developed by Shanon and Weaver (Austin and Pinkleton 2015). Apart from this model of communication, other two models will be described in this section. The models are transmission model and transaction model. The two models can be used both in terms of organizational perspectives and in terms of individual perspectives. According to the transmission model, the communication process is defined as the convey of message from a source to a receiver via using a medium. On the other hand, according to transactional model, the process of communication is defined as the negotiation or creation of the meaning where more than one parties are responding to the environment and are complementary to each other (Savery 2015). Essential Skills for Improving Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal skills are the tools that people in the organization use to communicate and interact with each other in the organizational environment. It can be said that the employees of Woolworths can practice for maintaining effective interpersonal communication. They are: verbal communication, listening skills, non verbal communication, problem solving, negotiation, assertiveness and decision-making. Verbal communication is the words used by employees in the organization. Non-verbal communication consists of different aspects such as body language, facial expressions, eye contact, hand gestures, etc (Austin and Pinkleton 2015). Active listening skills are considered as an important aspect of effective interpersonal communication that is the result of the listening to the customers queries in the stores. Negotiation is the important interpersonal skill that is related to increased business communication that is related to the dealing with the customers as well as to the employees of Woolworths regarding profitability and the reputation of the company (Ulmer, Sellnow and Seeger 2013). Problem solving skill is essential for the managers in order to resolve the issues within the organization as well as to the different customers of Woolworths. It helps the employees to accomplish organizational goals and objectives. A manager of a multinational organization like Woolworths must have an effective decision making skills that will help him in analyzing situations while developing a professional solution within the organizational perspective (Keyton et al. 2013). Development of Intercultural and Organizational Communication Intercultural organizational communication is essential in order to maintain a culture of inclusion and diversity within the organizational context. Woolworths maintains a strong culture in the perspective of inclusion and diversity through maintaining cross-cultural communication. Cross-cultural training and developmental programs are to be formulated for the employees in order to develop a communication channel among the members of diverse cultural backgrounds. Cross-cultural communications helps in generating ideas regarding the complex situations of the company in terms of customer satisfaction (Leathers and Eaves 2015). Characteristics of an Ideal Communicator in Organizational Perspectives Communication at the organizational perspectives is slight different from that of personal practices. An ideal communicator in terms of organizational perspectives must have some characteristics such as: Effective body language Eye contact Active listening skills Effective decision-making skills Adaptive skills Problem solving skills Effective communicator Effective Task delegation Proper understanding skills Self awareness Facial communication Hand gestures Effective leadership skills (Savery 2015) It can be concluded that Woolworths is a company in Australia that is focused into different aspects of communication skills such as interpersonal communication skills, organizational communication skills, intercultural communication skills, etc. Woolworths not only focuses on the values of the customers but also they are committed to fulfil the employees demands and train them while having improved communication skill in order to solve issues of the different customers and the employees at various management levels. References Austin, E.W. and Pinkleton, B.E., 2015.Strategic Public Relations Management: Planning and Managing Effective Communication Campaigns(Vol. 10). Routledge. Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014.Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Griffin, R.W., 2013.Fundamentals of management. Cengage Learning. Keyton, J., Caputo, J.M., Ford, E.A., Fu, R., Leibowitz, S.A., Liu, T., Polasik, S.S., Ghosh, P. and Wu, C., 2013. Investigating verbal workplace communication behaviors.The Journal of Business Communication (1973),50(2), pp.152-169. Leathers, D.G. and Eaves, M., 2015.Successful nonverbal communication: Principles and applications. Routledge. Sanghi, S., 2016.The handbook of competency mapping: understanding, designing and implementing competency models in organizations. SAGE Publications India. Savery, J.R., 2015. Overview of problem-based learning: Definitions and distinctions.Essential readings in problem-based learning: Exploring and extending the legacy of Howard S. Barrows, pp.5-15. Ulmer, R.R., Sellnow, T.L. and Seeger, M.W., 2013.Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Sage Publications.
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
Mr. Ben Essay Theoretical Economics Letters, 2012, 2, 109-113 doi:10. 4236/tel. 2012. 21020 Published Online February 2012 (http://www. SciRP. org/journal/tel) The Effects of Income Inequality on Education Policy and Economic Growth Katsuyuki Naito, Keigo Nishida Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan Email: k. naito. [emailprotected] com, k. [emailprotected] ecs. kyoto-u. ac. jp Received November 30, 2011; revised December 20, 2011; accepted December 28, 2011 ABSTRACT This paper presents a simple model to investigate the relationship among initial income inequality, education and economic growth. Public expenditure on education is determined through majority voting. Although preferences of individuals are not single-peaked, the individual with the median income becomes the decisive voter. Our model predicts that high initial inequality has a negative impact on education expenditure and therefore retards economic growth. Keywords: Income Inequality; Majority Voting; Human Capital Accumulation; Economic Growth 1. Introduction The relationship between initial levels of income inequality and economic growth is a central question in growth and development literature. Many political economists have addressed this question by analyzing how income inequality affects the size of redistribution. Standard politico-economic theories predict that, under majority voting, high income inequality is associated with a large scale of redistribution policies as the poor majority favors it. Persson and Tabellini  argue that income redistribution creates adverse incentive for investments and therefore high income inequality is harmful for growth. However, redistribution policies may promote economic growth if they are practiced through the provision of public goods that can enhance future productivity. We will write a custom essay sample on Mr. Ben specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Mr. Ben specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Mr. Ben specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer SaintPaul and Verdier  construct a model in which public education is the channel of redistribution. In their model, high income inequality implies strong support for public education, which facilitates human capital accumulation and economic growth. In contrast to these theories, the hypothesis that high inequality is associated with redistribution is not supported by data. For example, crosscountry regressions by Easterly [3,4] show that higher inequality leads to lower levels of public goods, education, per capita income and growth rates. This suggests the necessity for further investigations on how income inequality affects public policies and growth. This paper proposes a simple model to reconcile the theory and evidence, and analyzes the relationship among income inequality, human capital accumulation 1 and economic growth in a politico-economic framework. In the model, the heterogeneity of human capital across individuals is the only source of income inequality. We focus on two features of education. The first one is a fixed cost of education. We consider a situation in which individuals must pay tuition fees to have access to education services although they are provided by the government. This aspect of education is particularly relevant to post-compulsory education, such as high school and university education. The second feature is that the return from education is positively correlated with the level of human capital inherited from parents. 1 These two features play a key role in the determination of the size of education services under majority voting. The main result of this paper is that high initial levels of inequality cause less publicly provided education services, or lower tax rates. In our model, the individual with median income is the decisive voter although preferences for tax rates are not single-peaked. When inequality is high and the income of the median voter is low, he or she does not prefer a high tax rate to enhance education. This is because the median voter cannot cover the fixed cost of education or the private return from education is too low due to his or her low level of inherited human capital. High inequality is therefore harmful for human capital accumulation and growth, which is in contrast to the result of Saint-Paul and Verdier . 2. The Model We consider an overlapping generations economy in which individuals live for two periods. They are heterogeneous only with respect to their human capital within TEL Many empirical studies such as Hanushek  find a positive effect of parental human capital on the return from education. Copyright Ã © 2012 SciRes. 110 K. NAITO ET AL. each generation. Each individual has one parent and one child, and the size of each generation is normalized to one. In the first period, individuals make no economic and political decisions, but receive education if their parents decide to invest in human capital of their children. In the second period, individuals inelastically supply their human capital to a final good sector and decide whether to invest in education for their children. Using human capital, h, the final good sector produces according to a linear production function, y = h, where y is the output. The final good market is perfectly competitive, and therefore, the wage for one unit of human capital is one. Individuals derive utility from consumption in their second period and human capital of their children. The preference of individual i born in period t are represented by a linear utility function, U ? cit ? 1 , hit ? 1 ? ? cit ? 1 ? hit ? 1 , government must hire teachers in the public education system. On the condition that the wage per teacher is equal to the average wage in the economy, the ratio Gt ? 1 ht represents the number of teachers in the public education system. From (3) and (4), human capital of individual i born in period t+1 who receives education is given by hit ? 1 ? ? t 1ht ? ht . 5) In contrast, individuals just inherit their parental human capital if their parents do not invest in education: hit ? 1 ? hit . (6) (1) where cit ? 1 and hit ? 1 are consumption in the period t + 1 and human capital of his/her child, respectively. The investment in education requires one unit of the final good as a fixed cost. Individuals must self-finance the cost because human capita l of their children is not valid collateral to lenders. The consumption of individual i born in period t is given by ? ?1 ? ? t ? 1 ? hit ? 1 if investing in education, cit ? 1 ? ? otherwise, ? ?1 ? ? t ? 1 ? hit Individuals with hit ? 1 ? ? ? t ? 1 ? ? H1 t ? 1 ? cannot afford to invest in education. The threshold H1 is increasing in ? t ? 1 . A high level of ? t ? 1 reduces disposable income of individuals and makes more individuals unable to invest in education. In contrast, individuals with hit ? H1 t ? 1 ? are able to invest in education. From (1), (2) and (5), the welfare of an individual with hit who chooses to have their children receive education is given by V E t ? 1 , hit ? ? ? 1 ? ? t ? 1 ? hit ? 1 ? ? t 1hit ? hit . (7) On the other hand, the welfare of an individual with hit who chooses not to invest in education is given by V N ? 1 , hit ? ? ? 1 ? ? t ? 1 ? hit ? hit . N (2) (8) where ? t ? 1 is the proportional labor income tax rate at period t+1. Remember that h it is the human capital of individual i born in period t, which is supplied to the final good sector at period t + 1. The government manages an education sector. By levying a labor income tax on parental individuals, the government finances public expenditure which raises the productivity of the education sector. Let the distribution of hit be denoted by Ft . The average human capital, ht , is then given by ht ? ? hit d Ft ? hit ? , and the tax revenue is ? ? 1ht . Assuming that the government budget is balanced in each period, we obtain Gt ? 1 ? ? t ? 1ht , The welfare function V is decreasing in ? t ? 1 since higher tax rates reduce the consumption in the second period. It is easy to see that individuals with hit ? 1 ? t 1 ? H 2 t ? 1 ? are willing to invest in education, while individuals with hit ? H 2 t ? 1 ? are not. Notice that the threshold H2 is decreasing in ? t ? 1 . An increase in ? t ? 1 raises the return on education, and thus, makes more individuals willing to inves t in education. 3. Preferred Tax Rates We proceed to analyze the characteristics of a politicoeconomic equilibrium in which the level of labor income tax rate is determined under majority voting. Since schoolage individuals do not participate in voting in many countries, we assume that only individuals in the second period have voting rights. To characterize the politicoeconomic equilibrium, we need to identify the tax rate that each individual prefers the most. Let us define ? ? and H by H1 ? ? H 2 ? and H ? H1 ? . ? and ? ? ? 0,1? , First of all, for any hit ? H t ? 1 hit ? max ? H1 t ? 1 ? , H 2 t ? (see Figure 1). Any indi? viduals with hit ? H are unwilling or unable to have their children receive education and therefore prefer ? t ? 1 ? 0 . We then investigate preferences of individuals with ? hit ? H . It is useful to define ? 1 ? hit ? and ? 2 ? hit ? by TEL (3) where Gt ? 1 is the public expenditure on the education sector. Individual i whose parent pays the fixed cost of education can have access to educa tion services and accumulate human capital according to the following human capital production function: ? G ? hit ? 1 ? ? t ? 1 ? hit ? hit , ? ? ? 0,1? . (4) ? ht ? Notice that the human capital production function depends on the ratio of public education expenditure to average human capital. The interpretation is as follows. The Copyright Ã © 2012 SciRes. ? K. NAITO ET AL. 111 Figure 1. The features of H1 and H2. ? 1 ? hit ? ? ? H1 ? ?1 ? hit ? ? 1 ? ? 1 , hit 1 ? 2 ? hit ? ? ? H 2 ? ?1 ? hit ? ? hit ? . For 0 ? ? t ? 1 ? ? 2 ? hit ? , an individual with hit is unwilling to invest in education because the return from education is too low. For ? 2 ? hit ? ? ? t ? 1 ? ? 1 ? hit ? , the individual is willing and able to invest in education. For ? 1 ? hit ? ? ? t ? 1 ? , the individual cannot afford to invest in education because of the high labor income tax rate. The ? welfare of individual i with hit ? H is summarized as ? V N t ? 1 , hit ? if ? W t ? 1 , hit ? ? ? V E t ? 1 , hit ? if ? V N , h ? if t ? 1 it ? Hence, these individuals prefer ? t ? 1 ? ? * if ? hit ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? and prefer ? t ? 1 ? 0 otherwise. ? ? ? ? ? In case (ii), i ndividuals with hit ? ? H , H1 ? * are ? * not able to invest in education at ? t ? 1 ? ? since ? 1 ? hit ? ? ? * . The welfare of these individuals is drawn in Figure 3(a). By simple calculations, we can see that ? V E 1 ? hit ? , hit ? ? V N ? 0, hit ? for any hit ? ? H , H1 ? * . ? ? ? Hence, such individuals always prefer ? t ? 1 ? 0 . Individuals with hit ? H1 ? * have their children receive education at ? t ? 1 ? ? * , and the welfare of such individuals are depicted in Figure 3(b). Similarly to case (i), these ? individuals prefer ? t ? 1 ? ? * if hit ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? and ? ? ? ? prefer ? t ? 1 ? 0 otherwise. We summarize the results of this section in Proposition 1. Proposition 1 Individual i with hit prefers ? t ? 1 ? ? * ? if hit ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? , and prefers ? t ? 1 ? 0 otherwise. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 4. Majority Voting Equilibrium This section shows that the individual with median income is the decisive voter although the welfare of individuals over tax rates is not single-peaked as shown in Figures 2 and 3. The logic shares similarity with that of Glomm and Ravikumar . Let hmt denote the human capital level of the individual with median income. If ? hmt ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? , then the individual with median in? ? ? ? come prefers ? t ? 1 ? 0 . Since individuals with hit ? hmt , who comprise of fifty percent of the total population, ? 2 ? hit ? ? ? t ? 1 ? ? 1 ? hit ? , ? 1 ? hit ? ? ? ? 1 ? 1. (9) 0 ? ? t ? 1 ? ? 2 ? hit ? , We define ? * by ? ? ?V E * ? , hit ? 0 ? ? * ? ? 1 ? ? 0,1? t ? 1 ? ? 1 in order to fully describe the preferred tax rate of individual i with hit . It is clearly evident that ? 1 ? hit ? , ? 2 ? hit ? and ? * satisfy the following relations: ? 2 ? hit ? ? ? * ? hit ? H 2 * ? , ? 1 ? hit ? ? ? * ? hit ? H1 * ? . There are two cases that need to be considered: (i) H1 ? * ? H 2 (? * ) and (ii) H 2 ? * ? H1 ? * . We start ? are with case (i). Individuals with hit ? ? H , H 2 ? * ? * unwilling to invest in education at ? t ? 1 ? ? since ? * ? ? 2 ? hit ? The welfare of such individuals is drawn in Figure 2(a). They prefer ? t ? 1 ? 0 . Individuals with hit ? H 2 ? * are willing to invest in education at ? t ? 1 ? ? * since ? 2 ? hit ? ? ? * . The welfare of such individuals is depicted in Figure 2(b). Simple calculations show 1 V E ? * , hit ? V N ? 0, hit ? ? hit ? . * ? ? * ? ? ? ? ? ? ? (a) ? ? ? ? ? ? (b) Figure 2. The welfare in case (i). TEL Copyright Ã © 2012 SciRes. 112 K. NAITO ET AL. human capital according to (5) with ? t ? ? * . In contrast, all individuals in lineage i such that hi 0 ? max H1 ? * , H 2 ? * ? ? ? ? ? ? just inherit their parental a) human capital in all periods, i. e. , hit ? hi 0 for all t ? 1 . ? If hm 0 ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? , then government expenditure ? ? ? ? on education is zero and no one can obtain education provided by the government. This situation continues and hit ? hi 0 for all t ? 1 and i. Proposition 3 summarizes these results. ? Proposition 3 If hm 0 ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? , then ? t ? ? * ? ? ? ? for all t ? 1 . All individuals in lineage i such that ? ? hi 0 ? max H1 ? * , H 2 ? * accumulate their human capital according to (5), while all individuals in lineage i ? ? ? ? such that hi 0 ? max H1 ? * , H 2 ? * (b) Figure 3. The welfare in case (ii). also prefer ? t ? 1 ? 0 , there exists no tax rate that obtains more than fifty p ercent votes to beat ? t ? 1 ? 0 . If ? hmt ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? , then the individual with median ? ? ? ? income prefers ? t ? 1 ? ? *. Since individuals with hit ? hmt , who constitute fifty percent of the total population, also prefer ? t ? 1 ? ? * , no tax rate gains a majority vote to beat ? t ? 1 ? ? * . Hence, the individual with median income is the decisive voter. Proposition 2 Under majority voting, ? t ? 1 ? ? * if hmt ? ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? , and ? t ? 1 ? 0 otherwise. ? ? ? ? ? ? never enhance ? heir inherited human capital. If hm 0 ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? , ? ? ? ? then hit ? hi 0 and ? t ? 0 for all t ? 1 and i. ? When hm 0 ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? , politically implemented ? ? ? ? public education accumulates the human capital of individuals in lineages whose initial human capital is greater ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? than max H1 ? * , H 2 ? * growth. In ? ? ? ? , and it stimulates economi c contrast, when h ? 1 ? ? ? ? , public ? ? ? ? * ? * m0 ? ? 5. The Result As described in Introduction, empirical evidence shows that high income inequality is associated with lower levels of education, public good provision and per capita income. In contrast to the results of Saint-Paul and Verdier , our model predicts that high inequality leads to less government expenditure on education. In the model, whether human capital is accumulated and the economy grows over time depends on the initial distribution of human capital, or income distribution. To understand this point, it should be noted that the child of the median voter is the median voter in the next period because human capital evolves according to (5) and (6). ? ? I f hm 0 ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? , t h e n hmt ? 1 ? ? * ? ? * ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? for all t ? 1 since human capital does not depreciate. Hence, ? t ? ? * for all t ? . All individuals in lineage i education is not implemented, and there is no human capital accumulation. These results imply that high initial inequality retards economic growth. This paper has analyzed the relationship among income inequality, education and economic growth by focusing on two features of education, fixed costs and positive correlat ion between the return from education and the level of inherited human capital. Fixed costs of education are particularly relevant for post-compulsory education. The analysis on situations in which compulsory and post-compulsory education coexist would be a fruitful direction for further research. REFERENCES  T. Persson and G. Tabellini, Ã¢â¬Å"Is Inequality Harmful for Growth? Ã¢â¬ American Economic Review, Vol. 84, No. 3, 1994, pp. 600-621. G. Saint-Paul and T. Verdier, Ã¢â¬Å"Education, Democracy and Growth,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 42, No. 2, 1993, pp. 399-407. doi:10. 1016/0304-3878(93)90027-K W. Easterly, Ã¢â¬Å"The Middle Class Consensus and Economic Development,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Economic Growth, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2001, pp. 317-335. doi:10. 1023/A:1012786330095 ? ? ? ?  such that hi 0 ? max H1 ? * , H 2 ? * Copyright Ã © 2012 SciRes. ? ? ? ?  accumulate their TEL K. NAITO  W. Easterly, Ã¢â¬Å"Inequality Does Cause Underdevelopment: Insights from a New Instrument,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 84, No. 2, 2007, pp. 755-776. doi:10. 1016/j. jdeveco. 2006. 11. 002 E. Hanushek, Ã¢â¬Å"The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools,Ã¢â¬ Journal of Economic ET AL. Literature, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1986, pp. 1141-1177.  113  G. Glomm and B. Ravikumar, Ã¢â¬Å"Opting out of Publicly Provided Services: A Majority Voting Result,Ã¢â¬ Social Choice and Welfare, Vol. 15, No. 4, 1998, pp. 187-199. doi:10. 1007/s003550050099 Copyright Ã © 2012 SciRes. TEL
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
In AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Nicomachean Ethics, he expresses his opinions on the basis of thought through eudaimonia and arete. Eudaimonia is the goal of human conduct, or telos in Greek. In English, Eudaimonia translates into happiness, but Aristotle uses it as a well being through prospering and flourishing. To achieve this Ã¢â¬Å"prospering and flourishing,Ã¢â¬ one needs satisfaction of a job well done. Arete is excellence in fulfilling a function, also known as an ergon. Aristotle finds arete, or a virtue in all objects, animate and inanimate. Aristotle explains his view of the Ã¢â¬Å"chief goodÃ¢â¬ throughout the Doctrine of the Mean, through the comparing and contrasting of virtues and vices. Aristotle begins Nicomachean Ethics with an explanation of the Ã¢â¬Å"chief good.Ã¢â¬ This good is presented by him through thoughts and theories of the Doctrine of the Mean. He states that all men who are in search of the good and knowledge of Ã¢â¬Å"the goodÃ¢â¬ have a profound influence on life. He then writes how a good man, sets goals for himself on a specific task. This experience in the function of the task gives self satisfaction. An example used by Aristotle is a sculptor who participates in the art of sculpting. The end result of his sculpting is a beautiful piece of artwork.... Free Essays on Doctrine Of The Mean Free Essays on Doctrine Of The Mean In AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s Nicomachean Ethics, he expresses his opinions on the basis of thought through eudaimonia and arete. Eudaimonia is the goal of human conduct, or telos in Greek. In English, Eudaimonia translates into happiness, but Aristotle uses it as a well being through prospering and flourishing. To achieve this Ã¢â¬Å"prospering and flourishing,Ã¢â¬ one needs satisfaction of a job well done. Arete is excellence in fulfilling a function, also known as an ergon. Aristotle finds arete, or a virtue in all objects, animate and inanimate. Aristotle explains his view of the Ã¢â¬Å"chief goodÃ¢â¬ throughout the Doctrine of the Mean, through the comparing and contrasting of virtues and vices. Aristotle begins Nicomachean Ethics with an explanation of the Ã¢â¬Å"chief good.Ã¢â¬ This good is presented by him through thoughts and theories of the Doctrine of the Mean. He states that all men who are in search of the good and knowledge of Ã¢â¬Å"the goodÃ¢â¬ have a profound influence on life. He then writes how a good man, sets goals for himself on a specific task. This experience in the function of the task gives self satisfaction. An example used by Aristotle is a sculptor who participates in the art of sculpting. The end result of his sculpting is a beautiful piece of artwork....
Monday, February 24, 2020
RFID Impact on Supply Chain Management - Research Paper Example RFID works using small (sometimes smaller than a fingernail) pieces of hardware called RFID chips. These chips feature an antenna to transmit and receive radio signals. So-called passive RFID chips do not have a power source, but active RFID chips do. RFID chips may be attached to objects, or in the case of some passive RFID systems, injected into objectsÃ¢â¬ Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology to recognize objects. This technology is for eternity classified as a technology similar to Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC). AIDC consists of Barcodes, Biometrics and Smartcards. Apparently, RFID and Barcodes technologies are considered as one of the key drivers in supply chain management operations to categorize objects or merchandize at various workflow stages. In the intervening time, Biometric and Smartcard technologies are employed for access control procedures, banking and communication industry. The prime advantage of RFID technology is its ease of use and minimalism. RFID replaces barcodes and is a time saving, effective and reliable alternative. That is the reason why it is adopted and deployed in multipurpose applications i.e. Supply Chain Management (SCM), Inventory Tracking, Theft Protection, Location based Services, Electronic Health Monitoring for health care systems, RFID integrated travel documents, payment systems and context-aware applications. In recent years, this technology is flourishing robustly due to its extensive usability in upcoming technologies i.e. Ubiquitous Computing, Pervasive Computing, or Ambient Intelligence Solutions. RFID technology comprises of transmitters spreading electromagnetic technology in the environment to send and receive signals. The communication is conducted between two elements, transceiver and transponder. The radio waves propagation is emitted the form of electromagnetic waves and promulgate in speed of light. The applications of radio waves consist of Radar systems, Fixed Mobile and Satellite Communication, Media Broadcasting and Computer Networks. Radio waves can utilize different band of frequencies measured in Hertz (Hz) which represents the natural process of oscillation in waves. RFID technology utilizes Low Frequency (LF), High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) from the electromagnetic spectrum. Light waves have certain limitations when passing through objects. On the other hand, radio waves travel through solid objects and opaque materials. RFID is implemented in many domains to improve business processes and supply chain management. RFID Usability Factor There is always a logical concept of analyzing RFID as a better substitute for the barcodes systems. However, the consideration of difference between these two technologies is imperative in order to deploy them successfully. Undeniably, RFID technology does not entail a line of sight to read the tags as compared to barcodes, where it is mandatory to identify the tag optically to scan it within a squat distance. Furthermore, in RFID technology, the space for data in a tag can be more than 100 bytes, which is far greater than the maximum space available in barcodes. The available storage space provides the freedom to assign identification numbers not only to a brand but also to each item individually. The valuable functionality of identifying multiple tags concurrently enhances the efficiency in any operational environment employing this